Informational Site NetworkInformational Site Network
Privacy
 
     Home - Plumbing Articles

Cold-water Supply Test
Durham Or Screw Pipe Work Pipe And Fittings
Gas Fitting Pipe And Fittings Threading Measuring And Testing
Hot-water Heaters Instantaneous Coil And Storage Tanks.
House Traps Fresh-air Connections Drum Traps And Non-syphoning Traps
Installing Of French Or Sub-soil Drains
Insulation Of Piping To Eliminate Conduction Radiation Freezing And Noise
Laying Terra-cotta And Making Connections To Public Sewers. Water Connections
Making And Care Of Wiping Cloths
Mixtures Of Solders For Soldering Iron And Wiping Care Of Solders Melting Points Of Metals And Alloys
More Preparing And Wiping Joints
Pipe Threading
Plumbing Codes
Plumbing Fixtures And Trade
Preparing And Wiping Joints
Soil And Waste Pipes And Vents Tests
Storm And Sanitary Drainage With Sewage Disposal
The Use And Care Of The Soldering Iron Fluxes Making Different Soldering Joints


Elements Of Plumbing




Plumbing Codes








The work of plumbing has a direct result on the health of the occupants of buildings; therefore in order that the plumbing may not be installed improperly and impair the health of the occupants, it is necessary to provide a code governing the installation of plumbing. Naturally these laws at first were under the control of the health department of cities, but of late years the building departments have assumed control of the codes with the result that coöperation with the building codes is now the practice rather than the exception.


To make certain the carrying out of the plumbing codes, it is required that a plan indicating the run, size, and length of pipes, location and number of fixtures of the prospective job be filed in the building department of the city, before the work is started. If the plan is approved by the plumbing inspector and acceptance is sent, then the work can be started. After a job is completed a test is made and the job is inspected by the plumbing inspector, and if found to meet requirements a written acceptance of the work is given by the building department. An effort is being made throughout the country to have the plumbing codes under State control rather than have a number of different codes in as many different cities and towns. The State code can be so arranged that it will apply to either city or town.


The installation of plumbing varies in different States. In the northern part of the United States all pipes which pass through the roof, if less than 4-inch must be increased to 4-inch. A pipe smaller than 4-inch will be filled with hoar frost during the winter and render the pipe useless to perform its function as a vent pipe. Pipes laid under ground in the Northern States must be at least 4 feet below the surface to protect them from freezing. In the Southern States the frost does not penetrate the ground to such a distance and the pipes can be laid on the surface.


Following is a State or City plumbing code insofar as it relates to the actual installation of plumbing.



Sec. 1. Plans and Specifications.—There shall be a separate plan for each building, public or private, or any addition thereto, or alterations thereof, accompanied by specifications showing the location, size and kind of pipe, traps, closets and fixtures to be used, which plans and specifications shall be filed with the board or bureau of buildings. The said plans and specifications shall be furnished by the architect, plumber or owner, and filed by the plumber. All applications for change in plans must be made in writing.


Sec. 2. Filing Plans and Specifications.—Plumbers before commencing the construction of plumbing work in any building (except in case of repairs, which are here defined to relate to the mending of leaks in soil, vent, or waste pipes, faucets, valves and water-supply pipes, and shall not be construed to admit of the replacing of any fixture, such as water closets, bath tubs, lavatories, sinks, etc., or the respective traps for such fixtures) shall submit to the bureau plans and specifications, legibly drawn in ink, on blanks to be furnished by said board or bureau. Where two or more buildings are located together and on the same street, and the plumbing work is identical in each, one plan will be sufficient. Plans will be approved or rejected within 24 hours after their receipt.


Sec. 3. Material of House Drain and Sewer.—House drains or soil pipes laid beneath floor must be extra heavy cast-iron pipe, with leaded and caulked joints, and carried 5 feet outside cellar wall. All drains and soil pipes connected with main drain where it is above the cellar floor shall be extra heavy cast-iron pipe with leaded joints properly secured or of heavy wrought-iron pipe with screw joints properly secured and carried 5 feet outside cellar wall and all arrangements for soil and waste pipes shall be run as direct as possible. Changes of direction on pipes shall be made with "Y"-branches, both above and below the ground, and where such pipes pass through a new foundation-wall a relieving arch shall be built over it, with a 2-inch space on either side of the pipe.


Sec. 4.—The size of main house drain shall be determined by the total area of the buildings and paved surfaces to be drained, according to the following table, if iron pipe is used. If the pipe is terra-cotta the pipe shall be one size larger than for the same amount of area drainage.




































Diameter Fall 1⁄4 inch per foot Fall 1⁄2 inch per foot
4 inches..... 1,800 square feet drainage 2,500 square feet drainage area
5 inches..... 3,000 square feet drainage 4,500 square feet drainage area
6 inches..... 5,000 square feet drainage 7,500 square feet drainage area
8 inches..... 9,100 square feet drainage 13,600 square feet drainage area
10 inches..... 14,000 square feet drainage 20,000 square feet drainage area


The main house drains may be decreased in diameter beyond the rain-water conductor or surface inlet by permission of the bureau, when the plans show that the conditions are such as to warrant such decrease, but in no case shall the main house drain be less than 4 inches in diameter.


Sec. 5. Main Trap.—An iron running trap with two clean-outs must be placed in the house drain near the front wall of the house, and on the sewer side of all connections. If placed outside the house or below the cellar floor the clean-outs must extend to surface with brass screw cap ferrules caulked in. If outside the house, it must never be placed less than 4 feet below the surface of the ground.


Sec. 6. Fresh-air Inlet.—A fresh-air inlet pipe must be connected with the house drain just inside of the house trap and extended to the outer air, terminating with a return bend, or a vent cap or a grating with an open end 1 foot above grade at the most available point to be determined by the building department.


The fresh-air inlet pipe must be 4 inches in diameter for house drains of 6 inches or less and as much larger as the building department may direct for house drains more than 6 inches in diameter.


Sec. 7. Laying of House Sewers and Drains.—House sewers and house drains must, where possible, be given an even grade to the main sewer of not less than 1⁄4 inch to the foot. Full-sized "Y"- and "T"-branch fittings for handhole clean-outs must be provided where required on house drain and its branches. No clean-out need be larger than 6 inches.


Sec. 8. Floor Drains.—Floor or other drains will only be permitted when it can be shown to the satisfaction of the department of building that their use is absolutely necessary, and arrangements made to maintain a permanent water seal, and be provided with check or back-water valves.


Sec. 9. Weight and Thickness of Cast-iron Pipe.—All cast-iron pipes must be uncoated excepting all laid under ground, which shall be thoroughly tarred, sound, cylindrical and smooth, free from cracks, sand holes and other defects, and of uniform thickness and of grade known to commerce as extra heavy. Cast-iron pipe including the hub shall weigh not less than the following weights per linear foot:










































2-inch pipe............... 51⁄2 pounds per foot.
3-inch pipe............... 91⁄2 pounds per foot.
4-inch pipe............... 13 pounds per foot.
5-inch pipe............... 17 pounds per foot.
6-inch pipe............... 20 pounds per foot.
7-inch pipe............... 27 pounds per foot.
8-inch pipe............... 331⁄2 pounds per foot.
10-inch pipe............... 45 pounds per foot.
12-inch pipe............... 54 pounds per foot.


All cast-iron pipe must be tested to 50 pounds and marked with the maker's name.


All joints in cast-iron pipe must be made with picked oakum and molten lead and caulked gas-tight. Twelve ounces of soft pig lead must be used at each joint for each inch in the diameter of the pipe.


Sec. 10. Wrought-iron and Steel Pipe.—All wrought-iron and steel pipe shall be galvanized. Fittings used for drainage must be galvanized and of recess type known as drainage fittings. All fittings used for venting shall be galvanized and of the style known as steam pattern. No plain black pipe or fittings will be permitted.


Sec. 11. Sub-soil Drains.—Sub-soil drains must be discharged into a sump or receiving tank, the contents of which must be lifted and discharged into the drainage system above the cellar floor by some approved method. Where directly sewer-connected, they must be cut off from the rest of the building and plumbing system by a brass flap valve on the inlet to the catch basin and the trap on the drain from the catch basin must be water-supplied.


Sec. 12. Yard and Area Drains.—All yard, area and court drains when sewer-connected must have connection not less than 4 inches in diameter. They should be controlled by one trap—the leader trap if possible. All yards, areas and courts must be drained. Tenement houses and lodging houses must have yards, areas and courts drained into sewer.


Sec. 13. Use of Old Drains and Sewers.—Old house drains and sewers may be used in connection with new buildings or new plumbing, only when they are found, on examination by the department of building, to conform in all respects to the requirements governing new sewers and drains. All extensions to old house drains must be of extra heavy cast-iron pipe.


Sec. 14. Leader Pipes.—All building shall be provided with proper metallic leaders for conducting water from the roofs in such manner as shall protect the walls and foundations of such buildings from injury. In no case shall the water from such leaders be allowed to flow upon the sidewalk but the same shall be conducted by a pipe or pipes to the sewer. If there is no sewer in the street upon which such building fronts, then the water from said leader shall be conducted, by proper pipes below the surface of the sidewalk, to the street gutter.


Inside leaders shall be constructed of cast iron, wrought iron or steel, with roof connections made gas-and water-tight by means of heavy copper drawn tubing slipped into the pipe. The tubing must slip at least 7 inches into the pipe. Outside leaders may be of sheet metal, but they must connect with the house drain by means of cast-iron pipe extending vertically 5 feet above grade level, where the building is located along public driveways or sidewalks. Where the building is located off building line, and not liable to be damaged the connection shall be made with iron pipe extending 1 foot above the grade level.


All leaders must be trapped with running traps of cast iron, so placed as to prevent freezing.


Rain leaders must not be used as soil, waste or vent pipes, nor shall such pipes be used as rain leaders.


Sec. 15.—Exhaust from Steam Pipes, Etc.—No steam discharge or exhaust, blow-off or drip pipe shall connect with the sewer or the house drain, leader, soil pipe, waste or vent pipe. Such pipes shall discharge into a tank or condenser, from which suitable outlet to the sewer shall be made. Such condenser shall be supplied with water, to help condensation and help protect the sewer, and shall also be supplied with relief vent to carry off dry steam.


Sec. 16. Diameter of Soil Pipe.—The smallest diameter of soil pipe permitted to be used shall be 4 inches. The size of soil pipes must not be less than those set forth in the following tables.


Maximum number of fixtures connected to:






































Size of pipe Waste and soil combined Soil pipe alone
Branch

fixtures
Main

fixtures
Branch

water closets
Main

water closets
4-inch 48 96 8 16
4.5-inch 96 192 16 32
6-inch 268 336 34 68


If the building is six (6) and less than twelve (12) stories in height, the diameter shall not be less than 5 inches. If more than twelve (12) it shall be 6 inches, in diameter. A building six (6) or more stories in height, with fixtures located below the sixth floor, soil pipe 4 inches in diameter will be allowed to extend through the roof provided the number of fixtures does not exceed the number given in the table. All soil pipes must extend at least 2 feet above the highest window, and must not be reduced in size. Traps will not be permitted on main, vertical, soil or waste-pipe lines. Each house must have a separate line of soil and vent pipes. No soil or waste line shall be constructed on the outside of a building.


Fixtures with:



  • 1–11⁄4-inch traps count as one fixture.

  • 1–11⁄2"traps count as one fixture.

  • 1–2"traps count as two fixtures.

  • 1–21⁄2"traps count as three fixtures.

  • 1–3"traps (water closets) count as four fixtures.

  • 1–4"traps count as five fixtures.


Sec. 17. Change in Direction.—All sewer, soil, and waste pipes must be as direct as possible. Changes in direction must be made with "Y"- or half "Y"-branches or one-eighth bends. Offsets in soil or waste pipes will not be permitted when they can be avoided, nor, in any case unless suitable provision is made to prevent the accumulation of rust or other obstruction. Offsets must be made with fourth degree bends or similar fittings. The use of T "Y"s (sanitary Ts) will be permitted on upright lines only.


Sec. 18. Joints on Soil and Waste Pipes.—Connection on lead and cast-iron pipe shall be made with brass sleeve or ferrule, of the same size as the lead pipe inserted in the hub of the iron pipe, and caulked with lead. The lead must be attached to the ferrule by means of a wiped joint. Joints between lead and wrought-iron pipes must be made with brass nipple, of same size as lead pipe. The lead pipe must be attached to the brass nipple by means of a wiped joint. All connections of lead waste pipes must be made by means of wiped joints.


Short nipples on wrought-iron and steel pipes must be of thickness and weight known as "extra heavy" or "extra strong."


Brass ferrules must be best quality, extra heavy cast brass, not less than 4 inches long and 21⁄4, 31⁄2 and 41⁄2 inches in diameter and not less than the following weights:























Diameters Weights
21⁄4 inches......................... 1 pound 0 ounce.
31⁄2 inches......................... 1 pound 12 ounces.
41⁄2 inches......................... 2 pounds 8 ounces.


Sec. 19. Solder Nipples.—Solder nipples must be heavy cast brass or of brass pipe, iron pipe size. When cast they must be not less than the following weights:






























Diameters Weights
11⁄2 inches......................... 0 pound 8 ounces.
2inches......................... 0 pound 14 ounces.
21⁄2 inches......................... 1 pound 6 ounces.
3inches......................... 2 pounds 0 ounce.
4inches......................... 3 pounds 8 ounces.


Sec. 20. Brass Clean-outs.—Brass screw caps for clean-outs must be extra heavy, not less than 1⁄8 inch thick. The screw cap must have a solid square or hexagonal nut not less than 1 inch high and a least diameter of 11⁄2 inches. The body of the clean-out ferrule must be at least equal in weight and thickness to the caulking ferrule for the same size pipe.


Sec. 21. Lead Waste Pipe.—All lead waste, soil vent and flush pipes must be of the best quality, known in commerce as "D," and of not less than the following weights per linear foot:






























Diameters Weights
11⁄4 inches.............................. 21⁄2 pounds.
11⁄2 inches.............................. 3 pounds.
2inches.............................. 4 pounds.
3inches.............................. 6 pounds.
4inches.............................. 8 pounds.


All lead traps and bends must be of the same weight and thicknesses as their corresponding pipe branches.


Sec. 22. Roof Flashers.—Sheet lead for roof flashings must be 6-pound lead and must extend not less than 6 inches from the pipe and the joint made water-tight.


Sec. 23. Traps for Bath Tubs, Water Closets, Etc.—Every sink, bath tub, basin, water closet, slop hopper, or fixtures having a waste pipe, must be furnished with a trap, which shall be placed as close as practicable to the fixture that it serves and in no case shall it be more than 1 foot. The waste pipe from the bath tub or other fixtures must not be connected with a water-closet trap.


Sec. 24. Size of Horizontal and Vertical Waste Pipes, Traps and Branches.—






























Horizontal and vertical Number of small fixtures
11⁄4-inch.............................. 1
11⁄2-inch.............................. 2
2    -inch.............................. 3 to 8
21⁄2-inch.............................. 9 to 20
3    -inch.............................. 21 to 44


If building is ten (10) or more stories in height, the vertical waste pipe shall not be less than 3 inches in diameter. The use of wrought-iron pipe for waste pipe 2 inches or less in diameter is prohibited.


The size of traps and waste branches, for a given fixture, shall be as follows:












































































































Kind of fixtures Size in inches
Trap Branch
Water closet................................................... 3 4
Slop sink with trap combined.......................... 3 3
Slop sink ordinary........................................... 2 2
Pedestal urinal................................................ 3 3
Floor drain or wash......................................... 4 4
Yard drain or catch basin................................ 4 4
Urinal trough................................................... 2 2
Laundry trays, two or five................................ 2 2
Combination sink and tray (for each fixture)..... 11⁄2  2
Kitchen sinks, small......................................... 11⁄2 11⁄2 
Kitchen sinks, large hotel, etc..........................
Kitchen sinks, grease trap............................... 2
Pantry sinks.................................................... 11⁄2 11⁄2
Wash basin, one only...................................... 11⁄4 11⁄4
Bath tub.......................................................... 2 2
Shower baths.................................................. 11⁄2 11⁄2
Shower baths, floor......................................... 2 2
Sitz bath.......................................................... 11⁄2 11⁄2
Drinking fountains............................................ 11⁄4 11⁄4


Sec. 25. Overflow Pipes.—Overflow pipes from fixtures must in all cases be connected on the inlet side of the traps.


Sec. 26. Setting of Traps Without Re-vent.—All traps must be substantially supported and set true with respect to their water levels. No pot, bottle or "D" trap will be permitted nor any form of trap that is not self-cleaning, nor that has interior chambers or mechanism nor any trap except earthenware ones that depend upon interior partitions for a seal. In case there is an additional fixture required in building and it is impossible to re-vent pipe for the trap, the building department may designate the kind of trap to be used. This shall not be construed to allow traps without re-vents in new buildings.


Sec. 27. Safe and Refrigerator Pipes.—Safe-waste pipes must not connect directly with any part of the plumbing system. Safe-waste pipes must discharge over an open, water-supplied, publicly-placed, ordinary-used sink, placed not more than 31⁄2 feet above the cellar floor. The safe waste from a refrigerator must be trapped at the bottom of the line only and must not discharge upon the ground floor, but over an ordinary open pan, or some properly-trapped, water-supplied sink, as above. In no case shall the refrigerator waste pipe discharge into a sink located in a living room.


The branches on vertical lines must be made by means of "Y" fittings and be carried to the safe with as much pitch as possible. Where there is an offset on the refrigerator waste pipe in the cellar, there must be clean-outs placed. These clean-outs must be of brass.


In tenement and lodging houses the refrigerator waste pipe must extend above the roof, and not be larger than 11⁄2 inches and the branches not smaller than 11⁄4 inches. Refrigerator waste pipes, except in tenement houses, and all safe-waste pipes, must have brass flap valve on the lower ends. Lead safes must be graded and neatly turned over beveled strips at their edges.


Sec. 28. Vent-pipe Material.—Material for vent pipes shall be of lead, brass, enameled iron or galvanized iron.


Sec. 29. Ventilation of Traps and Soil Lines.—Traps shall be protected from siphonage or air pressure by special vent pipes of a size of not less than the following tables:













































Size of pipe Maximum

length in feet
Number of traps vented
Mains Branch Main vertical
11⁄4-inch vent.......... 20 feet 1
11⁄2-inch vent.......... 40 feet 2 or less
2-inch vent.............. 65 feet 10 or less 20 or less
21⁄2-inch vent.......... 100 feet 20 or less 40 or less
3-inch vent.............. 10 or more

stories
60 or less 100 or less


The branch vent shall not be less than the following sizes:



  • 11⁄4 inches in diameter for 11⁄4 inch trap.

  • 11⁄2 inches in diameter for 11⁄2 inch to 21⁄2 inch trap.

  • 2 inches in diameter for 3 inch to 4 inch trap.

  • One-half their diameter, for traps 3 inches and over.


Where two or more closets are placed side by side, on a horizontal branch, the branch line shall have a relief extended as a loop. A pipe 2 inches in diameter shall be sufficient as a loop vent for two closets. A pipe 3 inches in diameter shall be sufficient as a relief for three or four closets; and where more than four closets are located on the same branch the relief shall not be less than 4 inches in diameter. All house drains and soil lines on which a water closet is located must have a 4-inch main vent line. Where an additional closet is located in the cellar or basement, and within 10 feet of main soil or vent line, no relief vent will be required for said closet; but where it is more than 10 feet, a 2-inch vent line will be required. Relief vent pipes for water closets must not be less than 2 inches in diameter, for a length of 40 feet, and not less than 3 inches in diameter, for more than 40 feet.


No re-vent from traps under bell traps will be required.


In any building having a sewer connection with a private or public sewer used for bell-trap connections or floor drainage only, a 2-inch relief line must be extended to the roof of the building from rear end of main. House drains, constructed for roof drainage only, will not require a relief vent.


A floor trap for a shower shall be vented, unless located in the cellar or ground floor the paving of which renders the trap inaccessible.


Sec. 30. Horizontal Vent Pipes.—Where rows of fixtures are placed in a line, fitting of not less than 45° to the horizontal must be used on vent lines to prevent filling with rust or condensation; except on brick or tile walls, where it is necessary to channel same for pipes, 90° fittings will be allowed. Trapped vent pipes are strictly prohibited. No vent pipe from the house side of any trap shall connect with the ventilation pipe or with sewer, soil or waste pipe.


Sec. 31. Offset on Vent Lines.—All offsets on vent lines must be made at an angle of not less than 45° to the horizontal, and all lines must be connected at the bottom with a soil or waste pipe, or the drain, in such manner as to prevent the accumulation of rust, scale or condensation.


No sheet metal, brick, or other flue shall be used as a vent pipe.


Sec. 32. Setting of Fixtures.—All fixtures must be set open and free from all enclosing woodwork. Water closets and urinals must not be connected directly or flushed from the water-supply pipes except when flushometer valves are used. Each water closet must be flushed from a separate cistern, the water from which is used for no other purpose, or may be flushed through flushometer valves.


Rubber connection and elbows are not permitted.


Pan, plunger, or hopper closets will not be permitted in any building. No range closet either wet or dry, nor any evaporating system of closets shall be constructed or allowed inside of any building.


A separate building constructed especially for the purpose, must be provided in which such range closets shall be set.


All earthenware traps must have heavy brass floor flange plates, soldered to the lead bends and bolted to the trap flange, and the joint made permanently secure and gas-tight.


In all buildings sewer-connected there must be at least one water closet in each building. There must be a sufficient number of water closets so that there will never be more than 15 people to each water closet.


Separate water closets and toilet rooms must be provided for each sex in buildings used as workshops, office buildings, factories, hotels and all places of public assembly.


In all buildings the water closet and urinal apartments must be ventilated into the outer air by windows opening on the same lot as the building is situated on or by a ventilating skylight placed over each room or apartment where such fixtures are located.


In all buildings the outside partition of any water closet or urinal apartment must be air-tight and extend to the ceiling or be independently ceiled over. When necessary to light such apartments properly the upper part of the partition must be provided with translucent glass. The interior partitions of such apartments must be dwarfed partitions.


In alteration work where it is not practicable to ventilate a closet or urinal apartment by windows or skylight to the outer air, there must be provided a sheet-iron duct extending to the outer air, the area of the duct must be at least 144 square inches for one water closet or urinal, and an additional 72 square inches for each addition closet or urinal added therein.


Sec. 33. Urinals.—All urinals must be constructed of materials impervious to moisture and that will not corrode under the action of urine. The floors and walls of urinal apartments must be lined with similar non-absorbent and non-corrosive material.


The platforms and treads of urinal stalls must be connected independently of the plumbing system, nor can they be connected with any safe-waste pipe.


The copper lining of water closet and urinal cisterns must not be lighter than 12 ounces copper, and must be stamped on lining with maker's name. Where lead is used it must not weigh less than 4 pounds to the square foot. All other materials are prohibited.


Sec. 34. Fixtures Prohibited.—Wooden wash trays, sinks, or bath tubs are prohibited inside buildings. Such fixtures must be constructed of non-absorbent materials. Cement or artificial stone tubs will not be permitted, unless approved by the plumbing inspector and building department.


Yard water closets will not be permitted except as approved by the plumbing inspector and then passed by the building department.


Sec. 35. Privy Vaults and Cesspools.—No privy vault or cesspool for sewage, shall be constructed in any part of the city where a sewer is at all accessible. In parts of the city where no sewer exists privy vaults and cesspools shall not be located within 2 feet of party or street line nor within 20 feet of any building. Before these are constructed application for permission therefore shall be made to the building department.


Sec. 36. Material and Workmanship.—All material used in the work of plumbing and drainage must be of good quality and free from defects. The work must be executed in a thorough and workmanlike manner.









Previous: Gas Fitting Pipe And Fittings Threading Measuring And Testing



Add to del.icio.us Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Del.icio.us Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon
Add to Informational Site Network
Report
Privacy
SHAREADD TO EBOOK


Viewed 5523