The proper cutting of threads on pipe is overlooked by some mechanics. There are many different kinds of dies and different kinds of pipe to contend with. Steel pipe threads very hard and the adjustable dies should be used on it. These dies cut more easily and leave a cleaner thread than other dies when used on steel pipe. When threads are cut on wrought-iron pipe the adjustable dies should be used as they cut a better and cleaner thread than other dies. To preserve the life of the dies and the quality of the thread, oil is used freely while the dies are cutting.
Threads.—The standard thread on pipe and fittings is a right-handed thread. Left threads can be cut on the pipe and the fitting can be tapped with a left thread. When a fitting is tapped with a left thread it is marked so. The following table gives the standard number of threads that a die will or should be allowed to cut on the pipe:
|Threads per inch|
|Threads per end|
To acquaint the beginner with iron pipe work, the following exercise is given. In it there are a great many of the actual problems that come up when the pipe is put in on a job. This is the last exercise that is required in this book. The sketch shows clearly just what the job is and below I have gone over each operation that is necessary to complete the job.
Materials Necessary.—Six feet of 1-inch black pipe; four 1-inch black ells; two 1-inch tee; one 1-inch right and left coupling; oil.
Tools Necessary.—Two 14-inch pipe wrenches, vise, pipe cutters, stock and 1-inch follower right and left die and reamer.
The vise is made secure on a bench or post, care being taken before it is put in place to provide room enough to swing the stocks. A length of 1-inch pipe is put into the vise and the vise clamped around it. The end of the pipe that is to be threaded should stick out through the vise about 9 inches. If there is a thread on this end, the dies should be run over it to make sure that it is a standard thread and to clean the threads. Before proceeding further with this exercise the dies and stocks will be described and their use shown.
Dies.—A full set of dies is taken. The full set of stocks and dies is composed of right and left dies from 1⁄8 inch up to 1 inch, with a guide for each size, also a small wrench with which to turn the set screws. The dies come in sets, two in a set. These are the Armstrong patent that I am describing. Take the stock and the handles, and a set of 1-inch right dies with the guides out of the box. The dies will have marked on them 1" R (if 1-inch left were wanted, the mark would be 1" L). The set screws are taken out of the stock and the dies inserted in their proper place. There is a deep mark on the edge of each die and under it a letter S. This letter means "standard." This mark on the die is set even with a similar mark on the stock and when the set screws are in place and tightened, a standard thread will be cut. There is an adjusting screw on the stock to make the proper adjustment on the dies.
Stock.—The stock is taken and the handles are put into it. There are two sets of set screws on the stock, one set for holding the dies in place and the other set for adjusting the dies. On the stock there is a deep mark to correspond with the standard thread mark on the dies. On the opposite side of the stock there is a place for the follower and a set screw to hold it in place. After the stocks have been looked over and examined thoroughly, the 1-inch right dies are taken and inserted. Then the 1-inch follower is put in place. The tool is now ready to cut a 1-inch thread. Now take a piece of 1-inch pipe at least 15 inches long and put it in the vise, letting it extend out from the vise about 9 inches. The stock is now taken and the follower end is put on the pipe first and the dies brought up in place to cut. The end of the pipe is allowed to enter in between the two dies so that the teeth of each die rest on the pipe. Now, holding the handles of the stock about 6 inches from the body of the stock and standing directly in front of the pipe, push and turn to the right at the same time and the dies will be started. Now put some oil on the dies and turn the stock, taking hold of the ends of the handles and standing at one side. The dies are run up on the pipe until the pipe extends through the face of the dies one thread. Oil is put on the pipe and the dies at least twice during the cutting. When the thread is long enough the stock is turned back a little and then forward a little and the loose chips are blown out from between the dies and pipe. If the dies are set right, a good clean standard thread will have been cut. This thread can now be cut off with the pipe cutters.
Pipe Cutters.—To cut pipe with a one-wheel pipe cutter is a simple matter. I will not dwell at length on the cutter itself. There are one-wheel and three-wheel cutters. We will use a one-wheel cutter tool. This cutter is forced into the surface of the pipe with a set screw having a long tee handle. The pressure that is brought to bear on the pipe while being cut is sufficient to cause a large burr to form on the inside of the pipe. Sometimes the pipe is completely crushed and rendered unfit for use. Therefore the user of these cutters should exercise care when cutting pipe. The pipe is put in the vise and the cutters are so put on the pipe that the pipe will be between the two rollers and the cutter wheel, the cutter resting on the mark that indicates the point at which the pipe is to be cut. The handle is screwed down and the cutters turned around the pipe; each time the cutters make a complete turn the handle is screwed down more. This procedure is continued until the furrow has been cut clear through the pipe.
Cutting and Threading Nipples.—Nipples are short pieces of pipe threaded on each end. Pieces of pipe longer than 6 inches are not called nipples. When a nipple is so short that the threads cut on each end meet in the center of the piece, the nipple is called a "close nipple." When there is a space of about 1⁄4 inch between the threads, it is called a "space or shoulder" nipple. To cut and thread these nipples a nipple chuck or nipple holder is necessary.
Fig. 68.—Nipple chuck and nipples.
Nipple Holders.—Take a piece of 1-inch pipe about 12 inches long and on one end cut a thread that is 2 inches long. Take a 1-inch coupling and screw it on this end until the end of the pipe is almost through the end of the coupling. At least four threads should be allowed at this end of the coupling. Now we have a piece of pipe 12 inches long having a thread 2 inches long on one end with a coupling on the thread. This is called a nipple holder. Now, to cut a nipple, cut a thread on a piece of pipe and cut the pipe off at any desired length, say 2 inches. Put the nipple holder in the vise with the coupling out from the vise about 8 inches. Take the 2-inch piece of pipe with a thread on one end, screw this thread into the coupling until it touches the pipe that has been screwed through from the other end. Now the stocks having the 1 dies and the follower in are put on the pipe. The follower will not go over the coupling, therefore take the follower out of the stock. Now the stock will slip over the coupling and the thread can be cut. With this procedure a nipple of any length can be cut. There are a number of patented nipple chucks on the market, but as they are not always at hand the above method is resorted to and serves every purpose.
Long Screws.—To cut a long screw which comes in use frequently on vent pipe work, a piece of pipe 12 inches long is taken and a regular length thread is cut on one end, and a thread 4 inches long is cut on the other end. Then a coupling is cut while screwed on a pipe, so that a lock nut about 1⁄2 inch wide is made. The description and use of these long screws will come under screw pipe venting.
Now that the proper use of the tools has been explained, we will proceed with the exercise according to the sketch. With a length of pipe in the vise and the 1-inch dies in the stock, run over the thread on the pipe. Note that all the measurements are center to center. Screw an elbow on the pipe and measure off the first length, which we will take as 12 inches center to center. Place the rule on the pipe with one end of it at the center of the opening of the elbow just screwed on. Mark 12 inches off on the pipe. This mark represents the center of another ell. Now take another ell and hold the center of one outlet on this mark. It will readily be seen that to have the measurement come right, the pipe must be cut off at a point where it will make up tight when screwed into the ell. Therefore, about 1 inch will have to be cut off, making the pipe 1 inch shorter than where it was first marked. Cut the pipe, and before taking it out of the vise make a thread on the pipe still in the vise. After the thread is cut, take the reamer and ream out the burr that is on the inside of the pipe caused by the pipe cutter. An elbow can be screwed on this pipe. The next measurement is marked off as explained, the pipe cut, then the piece in the vise threaded and reamed. The measurements must be accurate and the dies should be adjusted to cut all threads the same depth. When the measurements are all out, there should be seven pieces of pipe, each piece having one thread. Now the threads on the other end can be cut except the 12 inch piece that screws into the right and left coupling. This thread is a left-handed thread and must be cut with the left dies. Change the dies now to the 1-inch left dies; turn the stock in the opposite direction of the right-hand thread, and the dies will cut the left thread. The pipe and the fittings can easily be put together as shown in the sketch by following the center to center measurements. The right and left coupling is the only fitting that will cause the beginner trouble. A right and left coupling can be used only when there is sufficient give to the pipe, that is, the two ends of the pipe to be coupled together are only 1⁄2 inch apart. To get the coupling in place to start the threads, the pipe must spread apart at least 2 inches. If the pipe cannot be spread that much, a right and left coupling cannot be used. The proper way to make up a right and left coupling is as follows:
Fig. 69.—F reads center of ell to end, C reads center of ell to center of valve, D reads center of valve to center of T, E reads center of T to center of ell.
Screw home the coupling on the right thread. Mark with a piece of chalk on the coupling and the pipe showing a point on each where the coupling makes tight. Take off the coupling and count the turns and make note of the number. Now do the same on the left thread and make a note of the number of threads. If the left thread has six turns and the right has four and one-half, then to insure that the left thread will be tight when the right thread is, the coupling must be put on the left thread one and one-half turns before it is started on the right thread. Now with four and one-half turns, the right and the left threads will both be tight. A little thought and practice will make this connection clear. If all the measurements in this exercise are not cut accurately, the right and left coupling will not go together.
Next: Cold-water Supply Test
Previous: House Traps Fresh-air Connections Drum Traps and Non-syphoning Traps